An Agreement Or Connection Between Two Atoms

When such crystals are melted into liquids, the ion bonds are first broken because they are not directional and allow the loaded species to move freely. Similarly, when such salts dissolve in water, ion bonds are usually broken by interaction with water, but covalent bonds persist. In solution, for example, cyanide ions, which are always linked together as individual NC ions, move independently by the solution, as do sodium ions like Na. In the water, the charged ions move, because each of them is more attracted to a series of water molecules than to each other. The attraction between ions and water molecules in these solutions is due to a kind of low dipol-dipoliic chemical bond. In melted ion assemblages, ions continue to be attracted to each other, but not in an orderly or crystalline manner. Because atoms and molecules are three-dimensional, it is difficult to use a single method to indicate orbitals and links. In molecular formulas, chemical bonds (binding orbitals) between atoms are displayed differently depending on the type of discussion. Sometimes certain details are overlooked. In organic chemistry, for example, it is sometimes only the functional group of the molecule. Thus, the molecular formula of ethanol in a compliant form, in a three-dimensional form, a complete two-dimensional shape (which indicates each bond without three-dimensional directions), of a compressed two-dimensional shape (CH3-CH2-OH) can be written by dissociating the functional group from another part of the molecule (C2H5OH) or by its atomic components (C2H6O), depending on what is being discussed.

Sometimes even Valenz-bol`s non-binding cartridges (with approximate two-dimensional directions) are marked, z.B. for elemental carbon. That`s what I`m not going to do. Some chemists may also mark the corresponding orbitals, z.B the hypothetical ether 4 anion (-/C-C/-4) which indicates the possibility of binding. Powerful chemical bonds are the intramolecular forces that keep atoms united in molecules. A strong chemical bond results from the transmission or joint use of electrons between nuclear centers and relies on electrostatic attraction between protons in nuclei and electrons in orbitals. The idea that all systems tend to move in the lowest-access energy state (losing excess energy in its environment) is applicable to a wide variety of situations. The system`s potential energy decreases as the distance between the atoms decreases until the system strikes a balance between the stabilizing interaction of the bond and the destabilizing release of the two nuclei. This minimum energy is called binding energy, and this amount of energy must be injected into the system for the two atoms to separate again.

The distance between the nuclei, if the binding energy is at a minimum, is the length of the bond. With regard to the basic physics of the covalent bond, a long-lasting and still widely held vision is that chemical bonding is essentially an electrostatic phenomenon. It is assumed that energy reduction, which corresponds to binding formation, is the result of the decrease in potential energy due to the attractive interaction between the nuclei and the electronic load accumulated in the binding zone. This essentially classic and static image of the distributions of interacting loads is attractive in its simplicity, in fact it seems to be a simple extension of Lewis`s theory. In addition, the electrostatic view above appears to correspond to Virial`s theorem [34,35,36], according to which the relationship between the total potential and kinetic energy of a molecule in its equilibrium geometry is always equal to 2. In other words, the attractive component of the binding energy is therefore due to the (electrostatic) energy of the potential, while the kinetic component is repugnant. This electrostatic view was originally developed by Slater [36] in 1933, supported by Feynman [37] in 1939, and then by Coulson [24], whose 1952 book Valencia had a strong influence on the chemical community.